by Brian DeLay. The secret treaty had called for recognition of the Rio Grande as the border, and the release of Santa Anna. Upon arrival the camp had already been surrounded by Nochaydelklinne's followers. The interior consists of high lave rock plateaus covered with fertile soil, thick pine and oak forests, and deep river canyons, including magnificent Copper Canyon, four times larger than Arizona’s Grand Canyon. The key element leading to war was that, in 1831, the Mexican government cut off food rations to Apaches settled near presidios. Six soldiers were killed; the army estimated that the Indians suffered 60 killed and wounded. They raided with small parties, for a specific purpose. After two decades of guerrilla warfare, Cochise, one of the leaders of the Chiricahua band, chose to make peace with the US. War between the Mexicans and the Apache was especially intense from 1831 into the 1850s. On August 21, 1879, Victorio, 80 warriors, and their women and children fled the reservation. When Cochise truthfully said that they not kidnapped the boy and offered to find him for the Americans, the commander refused to believe him and instead took Cochise and his party hostage for the boy’s … Geronimo was a leader in the Apache-American war which was an outgrowth of the war with the Mexicans. The last hostile band of Apache, led by Geronimo, surrendered in 1886, although individual Apaches continued with banditry in the U.S. and Mexico for many additional years (see Apache Wars). They soon were also visiting Sonora and Coahuila and seem to have absorbed several other Indian peoples native to the future U.S.-Mexico border area, the Suma, Manso, Jano, and Jocome. Sometime in 1862 Yavapai County, Arizona, Theodore Boggs fought a small engagement with Apaches at Big Bug, Arizona. Limerick, Patricia Nelson. Cochise escaped, and a standoff developed as Cochise's tribe and allies surrounded the American forces, demanding the release of the rest of Cochise's party. Their campaigns against the Confederates were the battles of Tubac, Cookes Canyon, Florida Mountains, Pinos Altos and Dragoon Springs. Geronimo surrendered in 1886 Cochise was unaware of the incident, but he offered to seek those responsible. The saga of the Apache Wars is both complex and compelling. Over 100 Mexican settlements were destroyed in that time. The California Column, as it was known, followed the old Butterfield Overland Trail east. For other Mexican–Apache wars, see, Pettis, George H. "Kit Carson's Fight with the Comanche and Kiowa Indians, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qdXDeP205vY, The US Government and The Apache Indians, 1871-1876: A Case Study of Counterinsurgency, https://www.desertusa.com/ind1/Cochise.html, http://www.onwar.com/aced/nation/all/apache/fapache1871.htm, Map of Battles and Skirmishes Between the Apaches and US Army - by tribe, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Apache_Wars&oldid=995264451, Wars involving the indigenous peoples of North America, Wars between the United States and Native Americans, Pacific Coast Theater of the American Civil War, Articles needing additional references from April 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2013, Articles lacking reliable references from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Bigelow, John Lt "On the Bloody Trail of Geronimo" New York: Tower Books 1958, Cochise, Ciyé "The First Hundred Years of Nino Cochise" New York: Pyramid Books 1972, Davis, Britton "The Truth about Geronimo" New Haven:Yale Press 1929, Geronimo (edited by Barrett) "Geronimo, His Own Story" New York: Ballantine Books 1971, Kaywaykla, James (edited Eve Ball) "In the Days of Victorio: Recollections of a Warm Springs Apache" Tucson: University of Arizona Press 1970. "[6] The United States Congress never did ratify the treaty. By 1793, almost 2,000 Apache were settled at a dozen presidios, including 400 at Janos and 800 at El Norte (El Paso, Texas). They were unsuccessful in attempting an ambush of a Butterfield Overland stagecoach. He began by forcing various bands of Mescalero and Navajo onto the reservation at Fort Sumner. Another factor inducing the Apache to make peace may have been the fact that New Mexico had made peace with the Comanche in 1786, and Comanche were now joining the Spanish in military operations against the Apache. (1991), "The Chiricahua Apache Population Resident at the Janos Presido, 1792-1858,", Stevens, Robert C. "The Apache Menace in Sonora". The Apache Wars were a series of armed conflicts between the United States Army and various Apache nations fought in the southwest between 1849 and 1886, though minor hostilities continued until as late as 1924. Most attended the Hampton College, a historically black college. He fled the reservation with 700 Apache and went to Mexico again. The Mexican people began to believe that Geronimo was the devil come to punish them for their sins. The fighters were mostly warrior groups, with small numbers of noncombatants. Let me tell you that as a part Apache, that is complete horse shit. See our What’s New page . The 1,000 soldiers in the presidios were reinforced by local militia and Indian allies. The U.S.-Mexican War—(1846-1848): CAUSES, TIMELINE, AND FACTS. After the Mexican War of Independence in 1811, the Spanish rule was over. Initially the warfare began with the older Apache-Mexican conflict, and then the Apache … Following this attack on a naval base in Hawaii, there was a call to arms across the country. The Apache Wars were a series of conflicts between the Apache Native Americans of the American Southwest and the US Army.The conflicts eventually resulted in a US victory and the relocation of the Apache tribe onto reservations. Massai had a traditional Apache childhood, he trapped and broke wild horses, and was educated in the ways of hunting and raiding by his father, and wanted to make sure he was taught to be tough. With negotiations between Cochise and Bascom at an impasse, Bascom sent for reinforcements. At the start of the Mexican–American War in 1846, many Apache bands promised American soldiers safe passage through their land, though other tribes fought in defense of Mexico and against the influx of new settlers to New Mexico. In the spring of 1883, General [George Crook] was put in charge of the Arizona and New Mexico [Indian reservation]. The Apache only rarely united to gather armies of hundreds of men, using all tribal male members of warrior age, and by the 1880s such methods of warfare were ended as most of the Apache bands had agreed to a negotiated settlement with the US government. In 1737, a Spanish military officer said, "many mines have been destroyed, 15 large estancias [ranches] along the frontier have been totally destroyed, having lost two hundred head of cattle, mules, and horses; several missions have been burned and two hundred Christians have lost their lives to the Apache enemy, who sustains himself only with the bow and arrow, killing and stealing livestock."[3]. Mexican-american War, Mexican-American War The Mexican-American War (1846–48) achieved U.S. expansionist goals by adding more than one million square miles to the United S… Victorio, Victorio (c. 1820–1880) was an Apache warrior known as an intelligent and feared fighter. About 1873 we were again attacked by Mexican troops in our settlement, but we defeated them. The incident came to be known as the Camp Grant Massacre. A total of 559 Indians were reported killed, including 373 Apache and 186 Comanche and unidentified Indians. Many citizens raised funds to send nearly 20 of the younger male prisoners to college after they were released from detainment. But the Mexican Indian Wars continued for another nine years, until the final holdouts were defeated in 1933. [citation needed] The wars were sparked when American troops, in error, accused Cochise and his tribe of kidnapping a young boy during a raid. The wars began in the 1600s with the arrival of Spanish colonists in present-day New Mexico. [8] By 1790, most of the Apache bands, which had no central leadership, were at peace with the Spanish. In January 1863, Coloradas agreed to meet with U.S. military leaders at Fort McLane, near present-day Hurley in southwestern New Mexico. The army went on to fight at the Battle of Cieneguilla, a significant Apache victory, and later the Battle of Ojo Caliente Canyon, an American victory. A Mexican official estimated that 5,000 Sonorans had lost their lives to the Apaches in the 1830s. The Mexican-American War (1846—1848) DEA PICTURE LIBRARY/Getty Images. Tucson was attacked several times and 200 people were killed by infiltrating Apache inside the walls of the presidio of Fronteras between 1832 and 1849. Mexico continued to operate against hostile Apache bands as late as 1915.[1][2]. You want to know how Jinxys family was started? CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, April 20, 2017. Carleton then decided to move the Navajo and Apache to reservations. The Mexicans then rounded up about 15 men, including the chiefs Colchon, Lucas and Carlos, and held them in the guardhouse. He enlisted Kit Carson, one-time friend of the Navajo, to round them up by destroying their crops and livestock, and forcing them on The Long Walk to Fort Sumner. Historical account by Geronimo of his involvement in the Apache - Mexican Wars of 1873 to 1880. For more than a 150 years, the tale of the U.S.-Mexican War (1846-1848) has been one about states. Additional incidents and casualties undoubtedly were unrecorded. THE U.S. - MEXICAN WAR Forgotten Foes. Bascom started on the wrong foot by lying to Cochise about his purposes and intents, something that was detested by Apaches, who did not tolerate liars. Initially the warfare began with the older Apache-Mexican conflict, and then the Apache … The Mexican-American War was the first major conflict driven by the idea of "Manifest Destiny"; the belief that America had a God-given right, or destiny, to expand the country's borders from 'sea to shining sea'. I will now close and hope that you will soon write and let me know how you are getting along. [13](See: Comanche-Mexico Wars), Apache raids beginning in 1831 occurred in fits and starts as bands and leaders, most prominently Juan José Compá, who was literate and spoke Spanish, alternately raided and responded to peace overtures from Mexican authorities. I joint {sic} the Army in January, 86 and had a good fight with Geronimo and his Indians. From 1850 to 1886 Geronimo and other Apache leader conducted raids of American settlements. Small war parties raided outlying settlements as well as caravans on the Santa Fe Trail northeast of Fort Union.By 1854 their forays approached open war. Many of Geronimo’s raids and combats were in the period of the Apache-American conflict that generated from white settlers occupying on Apache lands after the war ended with Mexico in 1848. The state that year paid out 17,896 for scalps and prisoners. In the spring of 1886, Crook went after Geronimo and caught up with him just over the Mexico border in March. As soldiers gathered near the reservation, he feared being imprisoned for previous activities. On April 19, 1882, another Chiricahua chief named Juh attacked the San Carlos reservation and forced Chief Loco to break out. He stayed there until September 1881. The mutilation of Coloradas' body increased the hostility of the Apache toward the United States. "We grew up with rumors that Apaches still were hiding up in the Sierra," Damiani said wistfully. In early February 1861, a group of Coyotero Apaches stole cattle and kidnapped the stepson of the rancher John Ward near Sonoita, Arizona. Ward sought redress from the nearby American army. The Army sent out a patrol to try to retrieve the livestock, and the Apache killed them all. Juan José Compas, the leader of the Mimbreno Apaches, is killed for bounty money. [20] The "Sahuanos", or Shawnees, as Kirker's men were called also included Delaware Indians and escaped slaves from the U.S as well as Anglos and Mexicans. (Photo by Edward S. [9], The Yavapai Wars, or the Tonto Wars, were a series of armed conflicts between the Yavapai and Tonto tribes against the United States in Arizona. On November 25, 1864, the Plains Apache fought in one of the largest battles of the American Indian Wars at the First Battle of Adobe Walls. At the time the Apache were buffalo hunting nomads who had trading relationships with the Pueblos of the Rio Grande valley. Then we decided to make raids into Mexico. America was ready to expand westward, even if it meant going to war. Around 1835, the Mexican government begins offering a bounty on Apache scalps (100 pesos for a man's; 50 pesos for a woman's; 25 pesos for a child's). Juan José Compá led the group which consisted of, according to Johnson, of 80 men plus women and children. In 1835, the government of Sonora put a bounty on the Apache which, over time, evolved into a payment by the government of 100 pesos for each scalp of a male 14 or more years old. The Apache also negotiated separately with Mexican states and municipalities, carrying on war with some while at peace with others. The Apache tribes and Spanish and later the non-Native groups from more northerly parts enjoyed peace some of the time. The chain of 18 presidios located about 100 miles (160 km) apart in Sonora, Chihuahua, Texas, New Mexico, and future Arizona was the backbone of the defense against Apache raids. American Westward expansion brought new woes—and foes—to the Apache. Lavender, David. Apache adult male prisoners were worth 250 pesos each, females and children 150 pesos. In one instance, an Apache war party neared a Mexican town and four of the warriors approached the town. After the initial shock, the two settled in and would trade with each other. On July 7 the War Department assumed police control of the San Carlos reservation, and on Sept. 1 the Apache were placed under the sole charge of Crook, who began to train them in the ways of civilization, with such success that in 1884 over 4,000 tons of grain, vegetables, and fruits were harvested. When the United States claimed the frontier territories of Mexico in 1848, Mangas Coloradas signed a peace treaty, respecting the Americans as the conquerors of the Mexicans' land. Noticing they were being trailed by a single troop of cavalry, the Apache lay an ambush seven miles north of General Springs, where a fork of East Clear Creek cuts a gorge into the Mogollon Rim. They considered such raids different than warfare. I was made Corporal when i first enlisted, but have now got high enough to be in Charge of Troop D. 6th U.S. Cavalry and it requires a good man for to get that office, and that is more than i expected. Charley White from Cranbury came out with me and got in the same Troop with me, and I sent him with twenty more men out on a Scout after Indians and Charley was lucky enough to be shot down by Indians the first day, and only three of my men returned. On June 16, 1829, a child was born to the Chiricahua Apache, in the Mexican-occupied territory of Bedonkoheland, in modern-day New Mexico. The war was a minor episode in Mexican history, however, it did mark the return to political prominence of Antonio López de Santa Anna, who had been in disgrace since the loss of Texas. 150 years ago a Mescalero Apache saw a pretty spanish girl and stole her. The battles of Salt River Canyon and Turret Peak are prime examples of the violence in the Arizona region. Other Apache bands fought the Rebels as well; Mescalero Apache attacked and captured a herd of livestock at Fort Davis on August 9, 1861, with the Apache killing two guards in the process. The Apache avoided pitched battles unless they were superior in numbers or had the element of surprise. At the start of the Mexican-American War in 1846, many Apache bands promised U.S. soldiers safe passage through their land. APACHE WARS. See more ideas about native american indians, native american history, apache. In 1880, a combined force of U.S. and Mexican troops finally succeeded in tracking down Apache and his warriors, surrounding them in the Tres Castillos Mountains of Mexico, just south of El … One of eight brothers and sisters, the boy was called by the singularly forgettable name of “Goyahkla”, translating as “one who yawns”. In 1861 that would change, a 12 year old boy named Felix Telles was captured by a Pinal Apache Raiding Party. The Apache migrated south and west, under pressure from the Comanche who were also expanding southward. Over the following decades, they fought a series of raiding wars against the authorities in both the US and Mexico in an attempt to preserve their traditional way of life, until their last great leader, Geronimo, finally agreed to surrender in 1886. [27], Schmal, John P. "Indigenous Chihuahua: a story of war and assimilation", Griffen, William B. They were seen by the Mexicans who then sent an army after them. Indian heads were rarely brought in, but the slaughter of whites by Indians went on steadily up to 1872. From the late 1840s to the 1860s, hundreds of thousands migrated to California and neighboring regions to try their luck mining gold, silver, and copper. The Apache–Mexico Wars, or the Mexican Apache Wars, refer to the conflicts between Spanish or Mexican forces and the Apache peoples. After the American Civil War began in April 1861, Mangas Coloradas and Cochise, his son-in-law, struck an alliance, agreeing to drive all Americans and Mexicans out of Apache territory. He was a son of the Missouri Governor Lilburn Boggs. The Apache killed and ritually mutilated nine Mexicans, and took three whites captive, but killed them later. N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1975. Victorio was joined by other Apache, especially Mescalero, and his force may have reached a maximum of 200 warriors, an unusually large force of Apache. The Apache wars were a series of armed conflicts between the United States Army and the Spanish. In the spring of 1882, the warrior Na-tio-tisha began to lead a party of about 60 White Mountain Apache warriors. Bascom set out to meet with Cochise near Apache Pass and the Butterfield Overland Stagecoach station to secure the cattle and Ward's son. Cochise killed the remaining four captives from the Butterfield Station and abandoned negotiations. In October and November 1775, a Spanish military operation headed by Hugo Oconór in New Mexico killed 132 Apache and took 104 prisoners. This article is about the Apache–US Wars. Many settled in New Mexico — on Apache lands. The Apache–Mexico Wars, or the Mexican Apache Wars, refer to the conflicts between Spanish or Mexican forces and the Apache peoples. [15] In Chihuahua, in 1832, to supplement the presidios all civilian men were ordered to carry weapons at all times, all occupied places were ordered to be fortified, and local defense forces were organized. In A Bad Peace and A Good War… Bands would often unite temporarily to launch larger forces against the Mexicans, but most Apache raids were relatively small scale, involving a few dozen warriors. [9], When Mexico became independent in 1821 the long-standing peace with the Apache began to fall apart. My Captain at time told me to take the name of his son who died and so my name since then is Charles H. Wood. The Apache had raided near the municipality of Moctezuma and driven away a herd of cattle. He was replaced by Brigadier General Nelson Miles in April 1886. Their name is probably derived from a Spanish transliteration of apachu, the term for ‘enemy’ in Zuni. In the Battle of Apache Pass, soldiers shot and wounded Mangas Coloradas in the chest. I like it first rate and I think as soon as my five years are up I will go bak {sic} to Old New Jersey but not today. The bounty for one Apache male was more than many Mexicans and American workers earned in a full year. In August of 1846, just months after the border dispute that started the Mexican-American War, one event cemented Apache hatred for Mexicans: the massacre of 130 Chiricahua Apaches, including Cochise’s parents, by a scalp hunter. The Mescalero Apache from Ojinaga/Chihuahua city have similar DNA haplogroups tied to Mescalero, Lipan of the USA and even the Tarahumara of Mexico. Give my best regards to all and to yourself and oblige. The first United States Army campaigns specifically against the Apache began in 1849[5] and the last major battle ended with the surrender of Geronimo in 1886. Northerners vacationing in St. Augustine, where Fort Marion was located, included teachers and missionaries, who became interested in the Apache prisoners. May 29, 2018 - Explore Jerold-main Collings's board "Apache Photos", followed by 102 people on Pinterest. Cochise professed truthfully that his tribe had not kidnapped the boy, and offered to try and find him for the Americans, but the commander refused to believe him and instead took Cochise and his party hostage for the return of the boy. The United States Cavalry had several expeditions against the Apache after 1886. Sergeant James T. Daniels, Company L., 4th Cavalry and Sergeant William McBryar, Troop K., 10th Cavalry, are the last-known recipients of the Medal of Honor for actions during the Apache Wars. The Spanish response to the Apache problem in the 1770s was to reorganize its frontier defenses, withdraw from some areas, establish a "cordon of presidios" (forts) along the northern frontier, undertake punitive missions against the Apache, usually with Indian allies, and encourage peace with the Apache. In a change of policy, the U.S. government decided to move the Chiricahua to the San Carlos reservation in 1876. More than one thousand Comanche, Kiowa and Plains Apache attacked him. The Apache Wars were a series of conflicts between the Apache Native Americans of the American Southwest and the US Army.The conflicts eventually resulted in a US victory and the relocation of the Apache tribe onto reservations. Over time, however, the U.S. took the bulk of the responsibility for defeating and pacifying the Apache, most of whom resided in the United States. Many Apache died in the prisons. Then they were ready to begin the Battle of Big Dry Wash. Geronimo is probably the most notable Apache warrior of that time period, but he was not alone. In the spring of 1877, the U.S. captured Geronimo and brought him to the San Carlos reservation. During one of them, 10th Cavalry and 4th Cavalry forces under First Lieutenant James W. Watson pursued mounted Apache warriors north of Globe, Arizona, along the Salt River. By the early 1840s Chihuahua had 1,500 soldiers under arms in addition to local defense forces. Geronimo did not come until February 1884. At the time the Apache were buffalo hunting nomads and semi-nomads who had trading relationships with the Pueblos of the Rio Grande valley. The Chiricahua continued to raid in both the United States and in Mexico. Because they resisted the military's attempts, by force and persuasion, to relocate their people to various reservations they are usually regarded as national heroes by their own people. N.Y.: W.W. Norton, 1987. Bounty hunters were also allowed to keep any Apache property they captured. When the U.S. claimed the former frontier territories of Mexico in 1848, Mangas Coloradas signed a peace treaty, respecting them as conquerors of the Mexicans' land. The war culminated with the Yavapai's removal from the Camp Verde Reservation to San Carlos on February 27, 1875, an event now known as Exodus Day.[10][11]. I also had two hard fights, where i came very near getting killed, but i got true {sic} alright. He agreed to relocate his people to a reservation in the Chiricahua Mountains. The Americans in turn killed the 6 men they had captured, though allowed the women and children to go free. Data was sufficient to total up casualty figures for nine of the years between 1835 and 1846. In December 1860, thirty miners launched a surprise attack on an encampment of Bedonkohe on the west bank of the Mimbres River in retaliation for the theft of numerous livestock. ", http://www.aaanativearts.com/apache/Apache_Mexican_Wars.htm, http://www.mexconnect.com/articles/374-indigenous-chihuahua-a-story-of-war-and-assimilation, http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPWE/HNS/Scalpin/old/folks.html, http://www.newmexicohistory.org/filedetails.php?fileID-25010, http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/HNS/Scalpin/children.html, "The American Experience, We Shall Remain: Geronimo", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Apache–Mexico_Wars&oldid=998479898, Wars involving the indigenous peoples of North America, Articles with dead external links from May 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 15:44. [14], However, after Mexican independence the resources and manpower devoted to the presidios declined. The Apache–Mexico Wars, or the Mexican Apache Wars, refer to the conflicts between Spanish or Mexican forces and the Apache peoples. The early contacts were friendly, but in the 17th century, the relationship between Spaniard and Apache deteriorated because of slave raids by the Spaniards and Apache attacks on the Spanish and Pueblo … He belonged to a Chiricahua Apache band. The Spanish first encountered the Apache, whom they called Querechos, in 1541 in the Texas panhandle. From 1832 to 1849, there were 1,707 recorded encounters, 80 percent of which resulted in hostilities, between Indians (Apache and Comanche) and Mexicans. The United States inherited conflicts between settlers and the Apache tribes when Mexico ceded territory in after the Mexican-American War in 1846. Strickland, Rex W. "The Birth and Death of a Legend: The Johnson "Massacre" of 1837", Smith, Ralph A. Hostilities toward the Americans did not start until Americans began immigrating to the New Mexico-Arizona area after the Mexican-American War. The rich Santa Rita copper mine in New Mexico was a principal target of Mangas Coloradas and his followers. The Mexican-American War was the first major conflict driven by the idea of "Manifest Destiny"; the belief that America had a God-given right, or destiny, to expand the country's borders from 'sea to shining sea'. It sent out fourteen companies of US cavalry from forts across the region. Campaigning against the Apache continued in the mid-1870s. After the ambush, Na-tio-tisha led his band of warriors northwest through the Tonto Basin. The United States Army established forts to control the Apache bands. War between the Mexicans and the Apache was especially intense from 1831 into the 1850s. During the hostilities, Juh's warriors killed the Chief of Police Albert D. Sterling, along with Sagotal, an Apache policeman. Military operations intensified, but, at the same time, Apache who voluntarily surrendered and settled at the presidios were treated kindly and provided rations. The armed soldiers took him into custody, and West is reported to ordered the sentries to execute the Apache leader. Many of the Spaniard deaths recorded were probably mestizos and Christian Indians. Both were cited for "extreme courage and heroism" while under attack by hostile Apaches, on March 7, 1890. [19], In 1839 North American James Kirker was contracted by the governor of Chihuahua for 25,000 pesos to raise an army of up to 200 men to suppress the Apache. The Jicarilla War began in 1849 when a group of settlers were attacked and killed by a force of Jicarillas and Utes in northeastern New Mexico. After the Mexican War and the Gadsden Purchase, the Mexicans claimed that their woes were due, not only to the slackness of the United States in controlling their Apache wards, but also to the work of criminal Americans. We’ve been told repeatedly over the past generation — and especially since 9/11 — that the world is more complicated than it used to be. After a standoff, during which 3 additional braves and a number of American soldiers and postmen were captured, the Apache retreated, believing they were being flanked, but in revenge for the continued holding of their people killed soldiers and postmen they had captured. "[citation needed] The Apache quickly retaliated with raids against U.S. citizens and property. They thought that they had achieved some success when the Americans closed the Butterfield Overland Stagecoach and Army troops departed, but those actions were related to the beginning of the American Civil War. When the U.S. claimed former territories of Mexico in 1846, Mangas … Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; United States took ownership of California and a large area comprising roughly half of New Mexico, most of Arizona, Nevada, and Utah, and parts of Wyoming and Colorado; Mexican recognition of Texas (and the Mexican Cession) as U.S. territory; End of conflict between Mexico and Texas; Caste War of Yucatán (1847–1901) Miles deployed over two dozen heliograph points to coordinate 5,000 soldiers, 500 Apache scouts, 100 Navajo scouts, and thousands of civilian militia men against Geronimo and his 24 warriors. Massai was a Mimbreño Apache, the son of White Cloud and Little Star, born in the Black Range Mountains of Western New Mexico, near Silver City.

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